The Framers did not pioneer the concept of man as a personally responsible agent. They may move through space without suffering significant alteration. The chair as such can also be distinguished from its characteristics.
But contemporary physics, as well as rigorous philosophical analysis, suggests that what we call objects are ultimately better understood as complex patterns of energy events.
When hunger and homelessness are allowed to exist and increase, as in the United States today, it is clear that the nation has lost any character of community it may once have had. In this case, we do not require a dualism between matter and mind.
Nevertheless, the weight of Christian tradition remained strong through the nineteenth century. Of course, the substances of which I have spoken thus far come into being and decay. We need to overcome the dominant modernist habits of mind.
In he wrote The Gospel of Wealthin which he asserted all personal wealth beyond that required to supply the needs of one's family should be regarded as a trust fund to be administered for the benefit of the community Carnegie Corporation of New York.
What is striking, however, is that Descartes and the modern thinkers who followed him, believed that the thinking minds are also substances. They occupy definable regions of space and are contained within these boundaries.