Sanitation research papers

To some extent I favor witnesses from Britain and France, particularly in the historical sections, although materials from Italy, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia also come into play, and a few ones from Spain and France. Introduction and Definitions Adequate sanitation, together with good hygiene and safe water, are fundamental to good health and to social and economic development.

There have been considerable studies that have examined the effect of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary practices on reducing absenteeism, diarrhea prevalence, and acute respiratory infections in school-age children. This is testimony to its power to disgust and embarrass, two reactions that dispassionate modern scholarship seeks to avoid.

Excrement was sin made material. Of human excreta, faeces are the most dangerous to health.

Sanitation research papers

What I aim to show in this book is that in the Middle Ages these relationships were not merely metaphorical. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A less scientifically rigorous but nonetheless professionally significant indicator of the impact on health of poor sanitation was provided in , when readers of the BMJ British Medical Journal voted sanitation the most important medical milestone since [6]. Methods A search was conducted in January using the scientific databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between and and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children. The outcomes assessed were reducing illness-related absenteeism, gastro-intestinal, and respiratory infections and adoption of point-of-use water treatment in children. Literary scholars have noted the popularity of latrine humor in medieval comedy, attributing it to a freewheeling crudity in medieval attitudes. Although linked, and often mutually supporting, these three components have different public health characteristics. Of human excreta, faeces are the most dangerous to health.

Nutrition practices which are key factors associated with the outcomes were rarely assessed. In the current day, as in the Middle Ages, filth and dung are familiar symbols for sin, corruption and moral impurity.

research paper on sanitation in india

At any given time close to half of the urban populations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America have a disease associated with poor sanitation, hygiene, and water [8]. Methods A search was conducted in January using the scientific databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between and and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children.

Indeed, as examples will make clear, this understanding of fi lth outlasted the Middle Ages. Throughout this paper, we define sanitation as the safe disposal of human excreta [4].

Diarrheal incidences in children during their first few years of life have been shown to limit their growth by about 8 cm and cause an IQ point reduction when they progress to about 7 or 8 years of age [ 6 ].

Review of literature on sanitation pdf

This is an obvious and predictable equivalence. The Policy Forum allows health policy makers around the world to discuss challenges and opportunities for improving health care in their societies. Even in Chaucer, the subject is tied to religion. This is one article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. This explains the otherwise perplexing pervasiveness of excremental motifs in medieval literature and art. This is testimony to its power to disgust and embarrass, two reactions that dispassionate modern scholarship seeks to avoid. Today excrement is a substance so taboo despite being so universal and unavoidable that it is still considered virtually unspeakable in modern scholarship. One gram of fresh faeces from an infected person can contain around viral pathogens, — bacterial pathogens, protozoan cysts or oocysts, and 10— helminth eggs [9]. At the same time, the analysis of filth was not the province of abstruse theological writers; the sources refl ect a culture-wide understanding most relevant to those concerned with the divine, with which filth was intimately connected. To comprehend that mindset, we must be prepared to put away the prejudices of modern social constraint and look realistically at medieval practice. Excrement was sin made material. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Previous literature has shown considerable studies regarding the effects of lack of appropriate water facilities, hand washing, and hygiene practices on child health outcomes. In the current day, as in the Middle Ages, filth and dung are familiar symbols for sin, corruption and moral impurity.

This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment.

This conception of excrement is expressed in both historical and fictional sources, by theologians and storytellers, by sophisticates, but most of all by popular writers who were not trying to argue a particular point of philosophy, but were refl ecting the world as it was generally understood.

Literature review on sanitation practices

Part of what this book seeks to demonstrate is the central role of filth and excrement in medieval religious thought There is more dung in theology than there is in Chaucer. Of human excreta, faeces are the most dangerous to health. Results The initial search yielded studies including the secondary research. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This is one article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. A less scientifically rigorous but nonetheless professionally significant indicator of the impact on health of poor sanitation was provided in , when readers of the BMJ British Medical Journal voted sanitation the most important medical milestone since [6]. Impaired cognitive learning and learning performance are long-term outcomes of the negative effects of infections such as diarrhea, worm infestations, and dehydrations which are largely attributed to poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions [ 5 ]. One gram of fresh faeces from an infected person can contain around viral pathogens, — bacterial pathogens, protozoan cysts or oocysts, and 10— helminth eggs [9]. High mortality rates of about To some extent I favor witnesses from Britain and France, particularly in the historical sections, although materials from Italy, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia also come into play, and a few ones from Spain and France. Page 5. As the following chapters will demonstrate, excrement was not merely used as a figure of speech but was central to a popular medieval metaphysics. In the Middle Ages, filth and excrement were the foundation of the understanding of human history.
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Sanitation and Health